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HOLIDAYS WITH A CRIMINAL BACKGROUND According to Oleg Loginov. January 26 — AUSTRALIA DAY

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HOLIDAYS WITH A CRIMINAL BACKGROUND

According to Oleg Loginov.

January 26 — AUSTRALIA DAY

Australia for Russians is a country, as they say, «incomprehensible at close range.» How did the convicts there manage to create one of the most prosperous states on the planet? In Russia, half of the country was inhabited by convicts – from the Perm Region to the Far East. So what? And nothing… I mean, nothing good. It seems that it’s all about common sense. For example, Australia was the first in the world to establish the 8th working day. The workers took to the streets with such an initiative, and the authorities, instead of arranging a Bloody Sunday for them, agreed. Therefore, although Australia is called the country of former convicts, it is never called the Country of fools…

E. Le Bihan» «The first Fleet at the Port Jackson raid on January 26, 1788»

The phenomenon of Australia lies in the fact that in a country whose history has a pronounced criminal background, the current crime rate is one of the lowest in the the world.

William Dampier describes plants

And how can we not remember that this continent was even discovered for England by James Cook, who was not in the service of His Majesty in 1770, and the pirate William Dampier in 1688. Almost a hundred years after that, England decided to get rid of its criminals and send them out of sight to the end of the world. On May 13, 1787, the First Fleet under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip left Portsmouth in the direction of Botany Bay, it consisted of 11 sailing ships with 1,530 settlers on board (736 convicts, of which 192 were women, 12 convict children, 211 marines, 27 infantry wives and their 14 children, and about 300 officers and other employees).

Algernon Talmage. «Captain Arthur Phillip hoists the British flag in Sydney Harbour, January 26, 1788.» (1937)

On January 26, 1788, Arthur Phillip founded the settlement of Sydney Cove in Australia, which later became the city of Sydney. This event marked the beginning of the history of the British colony of New South Wales, and Phillip’s landing Day is celebrated in Australia as a national holiday — Australia Day.

The inhabitants of the settlement were convicts brought from Great Britain, and it received its name in honor of the Minister of the Interior Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney.

Moreover, the convicts brought to Australia were by no means minor offenders, those who had solid sentences – from 7 years to life imprisonment — were sent there. Sometimes they were sentenced to death, whose execution was replaced by hard labor.

In the first years of the colony’s existence, its population was replenished from the outside solely at the expense of criminals who fell into conditions of hard work and insufficient food. It was only in 1793 that the first few families of free settlers arrived in Australia.

The free settlers had the opportunity to hire convicts, feed them and make sure that they did not escape in exchange for the right to receive land. This helped to reduce the burden on the central administration, those prisoners who did not get to work with the settlers were located in the barracks of Hyde Park or the Parramatta women’s colony.

John Millar Watt. «The Uprising of the Australian convicts»

The conditions of the prisoners were harsh, those convicts who refused to work could be flogged, shackled or sent to a high-security penal colony. Correctional colonies in Port Arthur and Moriton Bay were stricter than a similar institution in Sydney, but the strictest was the colony on Norfolk Island. Those prisoners who had fully served their sentence or were pardoned, as a rule, remained in Australia, in the status of settlers and could already hire prisoners themselves.

In 1789, former convict James Rews grew the first successful wheat crop in New South Wales. He repeated this success and the following year, due to the acute food problem and the need to solve it, Governor Arthur Phillip awarded Ryuz the first allotment of land in the colony. Rews received 30 acres of land in Rose Hill near Parramatta, It was the first successful agricultural enterprise, soon others appeared, gradually the colony was able to provide itself with food on its own.

The Castle Hill Prisoners’ Revolt of 1804

In 1804, there was an uprising in Castle Hill, better known as the second Battle of Winigar Hill. 200 escaped convicts, mostly Irish, rebelled, which was quickly suppressed by the New South Wales Corps. On January 26, 1808, there was a Rum riot directed against Governor William Bligh under the leadership of Captain John MacArthur.

Parade in Sydney. January 26 , 1938

In the same year, 1808, the first celebration of Australia Day took place. In 1818, Governor Lachlan Macquarie officially celebrated January 26 as Foundation Day. He declared this day a national holiday for all government employees, and also allocated them an additional allowance in the form of «a pound of fresh meat». In honor of the 30th anniversary of the first landing, he ordered a thirty-volley cannon salute at Dawes Point, where each salvo symbolized one year since the founding of the colony. This has become a tradition for the next governors.

*Texts from Wikipedia and other Internet resources were used.*

*Translated using an electronic dictionary. The original text in Russian and much more on the criminal topic can be selected on the main page of the site — http://crimerecords.info/

 

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